The Aryans were semi-nomadic Nordic Whites. They were perhaps located originally on the steppes of southern Russia and Central Asia. They spoke the parent language of the various Indo-European languages. They were unquestionably tough, fierce and war-like people. Their religion dominated by a storm-god or sky-god that enjoins warfare and conquest. This god was called something like “Dyaus,” a word related to “deva” (the Sanskrit word for “god”).
Various Theories about Where Aryans Came From
The Aryans were remarkably expansionist. Almost everywhere they went they conquered and subjugated the indigenous peoples. They also imposed their languages and (to varying degrees) their religious beliefs on the natives. In turn, they received contributions from the peoples whom they conquered.
The earliest history of the Aryans in India is called the Rigvedic Period (1700-1000 BC). This was named after the religious praise poems. These were the oldest pieces of literature in India. The Later Vedic Period or Brahmanic Period (1000-500 BC) was is truly an epic age. It was in this period that the great literary, heroic epics of Indian culture, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana were formulated though they were composed between 500 and 200 BC.
There are many theories about where Aryans came from. One theory hints that Aryans inhabited in some place in Europe and voyaged to various places. The Aryans who came to India were an offshoot of Europeans.
Some philologists believed that the Aryans originally belonged to Hungary. The affinity of the languages, flora, and fauna with which the Aryans were conversant, could only be from a cold area like this.
When did Arya Come to India?
There was an Indian theory on this view. This view held that the Aryans were residents of Saptasindu (in India). The Saptasindu area enclosed River Saraswati and Indus. They claimed that the language of Aryans had Sanskrit words. Hence, they cannot be European or any other place. Also if the Aryans had come from outside, their ancient literature (Vedas) should have been found there. But no Vedic literature has been discovered in any place outside India.
The central Asian theory is the well-accepted theory of Aryans. According to the Central Asian theory, the Vedic people were nomads in Punjab. They came down from Central Asia. According to Max Muller, central Asia was the fundamental place from where they voyaged to various places.
However, the ‘Rig Veda’ itself has nearly 100 references to the ocean (Samudra), along with dozens of references to ships, and to rivers flowing into the sea. The Vedic literature and Iranian book Zenda Avesta illustrates that the dwellers of India and Iran must have cohabitated.