Ancient Indian Inventions Discoveries2
Continued from part 1
7. Crucible steel: If not as early as 300 BCE then at least with conformity by 200 BCE, high quality steel was being produced in southern India. This was produced by what Europeans subsequently called the crucible technique. In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible.
This mixture was heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon. The first crucible steel was the wootz steel. This wootz steel originated in India prior to the beginning of the Common Era. According to the archaeological evidence, this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.
8. Dock: The world's first dock was at Lothal in 2400 BCE. This dock was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. According to the modern oceanographers, the Harappans had possessed great knowledge relating to tides. This knowledge was applied to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, along with excellent hydrography and maritime engineering.
This was the earliest known dock found in the world. It was equipped to berth and service ships. This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat. The Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be washed through flow tides in the river estuary.
9. Incense clock: The incense clock is popularly associated with China. However, the incense clock is believed to have originated in India, at least in its fundamental form if not function since incense itself was introduced to China by India in the early centuries CE, along with the spread of Buddhism by travelling monks.
10. India ink: The source of the carbon pigment used in India ink was India. In India, the carbon black from which India ink was produced was obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances. Ink itself has been used in India since at least the 4th century BCE. Masi was an early ink in India. Masi was an admixture of several chemical components.
11. Kabaddi: The game of Kabaddi originated in India during prehistory. Its evolution into the modern form involves a range of assumptions from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self defense. But most authorities agree that the game existed in some form or the other in India during the period between 1500-400 BCE.
12. Ludo: 'Pachisi' originated in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta. This game was played by the Mughal emperors of India; most notable being Akbar. Akbar played living Pachisi using girls from his harem. A variant of this game, called Ludo, came to be introduced to England during the British Raj.