Ancient India Mohenjodaro Indus Civilization:
Ancient India Mohenjodaro Indus-civilization part1, part 2, part3
Both Harappa and Mohenjodaro share a relatively similar architectural layout. They were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the alike city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality. However, the extent and functioning of an administrative center, however, is not clear.
Mohenjodaro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus was believed to be the cause of destruction. The city was divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel, and the Lower City.
Most of the Lower City is yet to be revealed. However, the Citadel is known to have public baths. This Citadel was a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, along with two large assembly halls.
Out of all the artifacts which were so discovered from the site of Mohenjodaro, a bronze statuette was of a “Dancing Girl” was found. This statuette was 10.8 cm in length, about 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjodaro in 1926. The other artifact was that of the ‘Priest-King.’ This artifact which was discovered in the year 1927 was a seated male figure.
Ancient India Mohenjodaro Indus Civilization
This artifact was 17.5cm in height. The bearded sculpture wore a bone around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns. These patterns were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and through the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun, as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The eyes are deeply incised. The upper lip is shaved, and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face can either be due to weathering or could also be as a result of the original firing of this object.
The task of preserving work for Mohenjodaro was suspended in December 1996 subsequent to the cessation of funding from the government and international organizations.
The site conservation work resumed in April 1997, with the help of the funds provided by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization (UNESCO). The two-decade funding plan provides $10 million to protect the standing structures and prevent the site from flooding.