The Gupta Empire period was popular for several reasons. One of the reasons was the advancement achieved by the Guptas in the field of mathematics. Many new inventions were brought about to help solve the mathematical problems. The chief exponent of the development in math was Aryabhatta.
One of the important developments in mathematics was the decimal system notation. The place-value system achieved its final stage during this time. During the Gupta dynasty period, there was no symbol for denoting ‘zero’. However, Aryabhatta in place-value system used the powers of ten with null co-efficients to indicate ‘zero’.
The Guptas followed the Sanskritic tradition and used alphabetical letters to represent numbers. They did not follow the Brahmi numerical system. It is believed that pi (p) was considered irrational during the Gupta rule.
By using the technique propounded by Aryabhatta, the precise five significant figures in calculating the diameter of a surface was achieved. The same principle of irrationality of pi was proved in Europe much later in 1761. This shows the level of development during the Gupta period.
Another important concept developed during this time was Trigonometry. In Ganitapada the area of a triangle has been described as the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area. Concepts like ‘sine’ were also known to the Guptas.
New techniques also evolved during this period to solve problems based on Diophantine equations or Aryabhatta algorithm, algebra and geometry. The inventions of Aryabhatta in the field of mathematics have proved to be of much use to the next generation mathematicians.